At present, the myopia of adolescents of all ages in China shows a trend of early onset, rapid progress and deep degree. According to incomplete statistics, the incidence of myopia in primary school students in China is about 30%, that of junior high school students is about 60%, that of high school students is about 80%, and that of college students is as high as 90%. The reduction of outdoor activities, the dependence of electronic products, and the heavy burden of academic work... With the changes in people's lifestyles, the incidence of myopia is rising. According to statistics from the World Health Organization, there are currently about 1.4 billion people in myopia, and nearly half of them are in China. If effective interventions are not taken, it is estimated that by 2020, the number of people with myopia in China will exceed 700 million, and the population of high myopia will reach 40 million to 51.5 million. What is the cause of myopia in my country? Can we curb the spread of this situation?
1. Myopia is a modern civilization disease, and the global incidence is rising. In fact, myopia is a modern civilization. “Not only in China, the incidence of myopia in the world is rising, and it is showing a trend of younger age.” Fu Jing, director of the strabismus and pediatric ophthalmology department of the Beijing Tongren Hospital Eye Center, pointed out that in the past, people often believed that wearing glasses is a symbol of knowledge and culture. Nowadays, "low-headed people" can be seen everywhere, and the number of myopia is increasing. Especially many children and adolescents have joined the "myopia army" early. Indeed, due to the continuous development of technology and the change of lifestyle, modern people inevitably have to read and read newspapers, and also use various electronic products, especially long-term use of mobile phones. In the past, people always like to say "playing mobile phones." With the rise of mobile terminals, people are watching mobile phones longer and longer. Moreover, the functions of mobile phones continue to expand, covering almost all aspects of entertainment, learning, medical care, ordering, calling, shopping, etc. Therefore, it is no exaggeration to say that mobile phones are the “just-needed” in most modern people's lives. "People's increased dependence on mobile phones, combined with inadvertent protection of vision and excessive use of the eyes, are all important factors leading to a significant increase in the incidence of myopia." Fu Jing stressed that this situation is particularly serious for children and adolescents. Myopia not only causes inconvenience to life, but also reduces the quality of the people and becomes a public social problem. This is not an alarmist. It is understood that whether it is conscription or recruiting pilots, firefighters, etc., there are strict requirements for vision. But with more and more myopia, there will be fewer and fewer qualified people. In recent years, there have been many people who have been eliminated in the recruitment due to lack of visual acuity. It is reported that due to the high myopia rate, China's civil aviation recruitment has only to reduce the requirements. In the new version of the civil aviation recruitment test, not only the requirements for vision were relaxed, but some people who had undergone myopia surgery were also allowed to apply. All kinds of problems have already shown China's reality as a "myopia".
2. The baby is born with a farsighted reserve, but many children are now consumed early. In the process of evolution, human beings have developed a farsighted reserve against myopia. When a baby is born, it is actually farsighted. This kind of physiological hyperopia is a kind of "farsight reserve." Fu Jing explained that newly born babies are usually farsighted. In the future growth and development process, not only the body will grow, but also the eyeball will grow, the eye axis will become longer, and the degree of farsightedness will gradually become normal. This process is called It is the face of the human eye. But now many children have prematurely developed myopia, which is to consume the "farsight reserve" prematurely. Fu Jing said that among the children who were admitted in the past, there were more amblyopia and less myopia, and the incidence of myopia in rural children was significantly lower than that in urban children. But now, most of the children who come to see a doctor are myopia problems. Especially in the summer clinic, more than 70% of the parents take their children to see myopia. Not only that, but the high incidence of myopia in the past began in the third and fourth grades of primary school, but now many children in kindergarten have been nearsighted. "Some children who are only three or four years old have a high degree of examination." Fu Jing is very sad.
3. The risk of high myopia in children with premature myopia is greatly increased. In addition to the large number of people, the ageing and severity of myopia are also in need of attention. According to the World Health Organization's survey data, the rate of myopia among young people in China is 70%, ranking first in the world; the rate of myopia among primary school students is close to 40%, while the rate of myopia among primary and middle school students in the United States is only 10%. Many people think that myopia is not a big deal, and it is solved with glasses and surgery. Fu Jing said: "Premature myopia occurs, the possibility of high myopia in the future will increase greatly, and high myopia will increase the risk of blindness." It is understood that as the degree of myopia continues to deepen, the eye axis will be excessively elongated. , leading to a variety of eye diseases. The survey found that people with high myopia of more than 600 degrees have a higher risk of retinal detachment, cataract, glaucoma, macular degeneration and other diseases than ordinary people. These eye diseases can cause serious vision loss, which can lead to blindness. These problems cannot be solved by wearing glasses or surgery. Fu Jing stressed that once myopia occurs, it is irreversible. This is because the eye shaft cannot be recovered once it is stretched. At present, all methods, such as optician, laser surgery, etc., can only correct vision rather than cure. Any cure for myopia is not credible. Some parents give the child a matching Ortho-K CL, which can temporarily correct the vision and delay the progress of some myopia, but it is only a way to cure the symptoms. It can be seen that prevention of myopia is by no means a trivial matter.
4. Studies have shown that sunlight may contain beneficial ingredients that protect vision. How can we protect the visual health of children and adolescents and curb the high incidence of myopia? Experts stressed that the first step is to prevent it. For preventive measures, Fu Jing said that in the past, it was generally believed that in addition to hereditary factors, myopia was mainly caused by long-term close-sighted things, but the latest research found that lack of sunshine is also prone to myopia. A survey by the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom showed that children who spend more than one hour outdoors outdoors have a 2% lower risk of myopia. There are also many studies that prove that outdoor activities are independent protective factors for myopia, because there are some substances in the sun, which may be related to eyeball development and inhibition of myopia. Therefore, outdoor activities at night cannot achieve the effect of controlling myopia. Therefore, it is recommended that children and adolescents have more effective outdoor activities. This requires kindergartens and schools to actively cooperate to ensure that children and young people have enough outdoor activities during the day, and it is best to guarantee an average of two hours a day.
5. Two 40 are important: keep a distance of 40 cm and use the eyes for no more than 40 minutes. Fu Jing stressed that it is also very important to control eye time, especially continuous eye time. On the one hand, we must reduce the burden of schoolwork. On the other hand, we must use scientific eyes, read and write, and use computers for not too long. We must control the time and pay attention to rest. Children and young people should not use their eyes for a long time. Especially when using electronic products, it is necessary to pay attention to changing bad eye habits. Whether you are reading a book, writing a homework, or using a computer or mobile phone, keep a distance of 30 to 40 centimeters. Each eye should be used for about 40 minutes. Fu Jing believes that to protect children's vision, the key is to do "defense" and "control", and then promote the establishment of a scientific myopia prevention and control system. The so-called prevention refers to the prevention of the occurrence of myopia, and the control refers to the progress of controlling myopia. This requires families, kindergartens, schools, medical institutions, social organizations, government functional departments, etc. to do their part, and work together to form a joint force.
6. Once you find that myopia should be as early as possible to identify "true" and "false" in order to intervene as soon as possible. In addition, it is recommended to check your vision every six months so that you can find the problem as soon as possible and intervene as soon as possible. Fu Jing reminds parents and teachers to pay more attention to the child's eye health. Some children will unconsciously squint when they look at the blackboard or in the distance. This may be myopia. They should take their children to a regular medical institution for examination. If they are confirmed to be nearsighted, they must distinguish between "true" and "false." Fu Jing explained that some children's myopia is caused by over-regulation of the ciliary muscles. This over-regulation may be restored by relaxing the muscles. This is pseudo-myopia. True myopia cannot be eliminated in any way and requires timely intervention. For example, wearing appropriate frame glasses, contact lenses, or using a Ortho-K CL. Judging whether it is pseudo-myopia or true myopia, it is necessary to look at the degree of astigmatism after the optometry. It should be noted that it is not possible to let the child's myopia degree be shallow, or to think that wearing glasses affects the appearance, and the Ortho-K CL is too troublesome. Be aware that long-term fatigue with eyes can lead to faster progression of myopia. Extended reading Dilated no harm to the eyes. Only accurate inspection can timely optician to avoid myopia progressing too fast. Many children who are considered to be nearsighted often need to have dilated optometry when they go to the hospital. However, many parents worry that dilation is unsafe or has side effects. In fact, this kind of worry is not necessary. The reason why it is dilated is because the ciliary muscles of the children's eyes have strong adjustment ability. If they do not dilate, the ciliary muscles will be paralyzed, and the true dioptric power may be concealed. Through dilated, not only can the child be diagnosed with myopia, hyperopia or astigmatism, but also accurate diopter. Moreover, in general, dilated sputum does not cause any harm to the eyes, only a small part of the population, due to dilated sputum may lead to elevated intraocular pressure, induced angle-closure glaucoma, but this part of the majority of the elderly, in the children's group is extremely rare. In addition, dilated sputum is divided into "quickly scattered" and "slowly scattered". Many parents will ask which one is better. In fact, these two methods of dilation are not good or bad, depending on the age of the child, the actual situation of the eye, etc. to make a choice. “Quick” is a rapid divergence, which is mainly suitable for older children and adults. The method is to close your eyes and sit still. The doctor drops a quick dampening syrup every 20 minutes. After two consecutive drops, rest for 40 minutes. After that, you can do the initial optometry examination. After 6~8 hours, the skin will return to normal. The next day. Go back to the test. "Slow" is a slow-dissolving child, suitable for younger children, especially children with hyperopia, astigmatism and strabismus and amblyopia. Generally, atropine eye ointment is used. After the doctor prescribes the medicine, the parents give the child medicine at home twice a day for three consecutive days. The fourth day comes to the hospital for the first optometry. From the date of the first optometry examination, the 21st day, come back to the hospital to review the optometry. Slow dilated pupils can fully paralyze the ciliary muscles that control the lens's accommodation, and the results of optometry will be more accurate. It takes about three weeks to return to normal after dilation. Playing mobile phones is dangerous. Short-wave blue light is more harmful to children. Electronic products contain harmful short-wave blue light. This is a light with a relatively high energy. Short-wave blue light can penetrate the lens and reach the retina, causing atrophy or even death of the retinal pigment epithelial cells. The death of light-sensitive cells leads to decreased vision. But this is not to say that as long as exposure to this harmful blue light is myopia, the key factors are the intensity of the illumination and the time of exposure. If you stare at an electronic screen for a long time, this short-wave blue light is harmful to everyone. Children are in the developmental stage of the eye, and because the child is short, holding a mobile phone or ipad is usually closer to the eyes. If you play with your mobile phone or ipad for a long time, the eye muscles will not shrink for a long time, which will cause double eyes. Damaged and not repairable. Once myopia occurs, no measure can reduce the degree. After many children have myopia, parents realize the importance of eye protection, and hope to use eye health in the future to reduce the child's myopia. But unfortunately, paying attention to eye protection does not reduce myopia. As children grow and develop, the myopic diopter will only increase and will not decrease. Children and adolescents are usually axial myopia. As the axial length becomes longer, the degree of myopia increases gradually. For every 1 mm increase in the length of the axial length, the myopia will increase by 300 degrees. Most adults can stabilize their myopia degree within a certain range because the length of the eye axis is no longer growing. However, any method can not shorten the length of the eye that has been lengthened. Therefore, the eye protection can not reduce the degree of myopia, and can only play a role in controlling the progress